Stages of Bedsores

Bedsores are wounds that develop when sustained pressure cuts off blood flow to an area of the body, causing the tissue to die. The most common areas for bedsores to develop are on the heels, hips, and tailbone, though they can occur anywhere on the body. There are 4 stages of bedsores based on their severity.

In this early stage, the skin is red and irritated but still intact. The sore will usually heal independently if pressure is relieved at this stage.

In this stage, the skin breaks open and forms a shallow ulcer. The wound may be painful and may bleed or ooze pus. The area around the wound may swell.

In this stage, the ulcer deepens and damages underlying tissues, including muscles and bones. The wound is often painful and may exude large amounts of pus. The surrounding skin may swell badly.

This is the most severe stage of bedsores. The ulcer penetrates through all layers of tissue down to bone or tendons, and the surrounding skin is blackened and necrotic (dead). These wounds are excruciating and can lead to severe infection. Without treatment, bedsores can quickly become life-threatening.

What is a Stage 4 Bedsore?

A stage 4 bedsore is the worst kind of bedsore a patient can get. Doctors diagnose stage 4 pressure ulcers when the ulcer reaches the bone, causing damage to the bone and surrounding tissue.

This severe and life-threatening condition occurs when a person gets confined to a bed or chair for an extended period. Hospitalized, paralyzed, or seriously ill patients are at a higher risk for developing stage 4 pressure ulcers.

These bedsores are extremely painful and often lead to severe infections and, in some cases, death. Stage 4 bedsores are most common on the heels, hips, buttocks, shoulders, and head, although they can occur anywhere on the body.

What Does a Stage 4 Bedsore Look Like?

It is essential to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you think your loved one has a stage 4 bedsore. Early intervention is key to preventing serious complications. But how do you know if your loved one has a stage 4 bedsore?

A stage 4 bedsore is a deep wound that extends through all layers of the skin. The wound may be black or brown and crusted with pus or blood. The surrounding skin will be red and inflamed, and the area may be warm.

In severe cases, bone or muscle tissue may be visible beneath the ulcer. Left untreated, stage 4 bedsores can lead to life-threatening infections and even death.

Causes of a Stage 4 Bedsore

A stage 4 pressure injury is a serious wound that can occur when sustained pressure is on the skin. Bedsores are most likely to happen when a person is immobile or confined to a bed for an extended period.

Stage 4 pressure injuries are very painful and lead to severe infections. If you think your loved one may have a stage 4 pressure injury, it is crucial to speak to their healthcare provider as soon as possible. It is equally important to contact an experienced Arkansas nursing home abuse attorney if you suspect abuse or neglect.

The most common causes of stage 4 pressure injuries include:

When a person cannot move, their body’s weight presses down on their skin, which can break down the tissue and cause a pressure injury. Prolonged immobility is often seen in nursing homes and skilled care facilities when patients get neglected throughout the day.

Nutrients are essential for healing wounds. If a person has a poor diet, their body may not have the resources it needs to heal a pressure injury.

Moisture from urine or feces can make the skin more vulnerable to breakdown. When nursing staff and caregivers leave nursing home patients sitting in urine or excrement, this can cause a breakdown in the skin, leading to pressure ulcers.

Some medical conditions, such as diabetes, can make healing more difficult for wounds.

Who Is at Risk for Developing a Stage 4 Bedsore?

Who Is at Risk for Developing a Stage 4 Bedsore?

When an elderly or immobile patient cannot leave their bed or wheelchair for an extended time, they are at risk for developing bedsores. Bedsores are pressure ulcers caused by pressure and low circulation. Wetness on the skin (such as soiled linen and clothing) can also break down the skin tissue, causing bed sores to develop.

The most common risk factors for stage 4 bedsores include being over 60, having a medical condition that impairs mobility, and being underweight. In addition, patients who are paralyzed or have poor circulation are also at increased risk.

Signs and Symptoms of Stage 4 Bedsores

Although stage 4 bedsores are painful, they are not always easy to detect. One reason is that they often occur in areas that are not easily visible, such as the lower back or buttocks. In addition, if the nursing home patient is disoriented, incapacitated, or has dementia, they may not communicate this pain to loved ones and nursing staff. Furthermore, stage 4 bedsores can take weeks or even months to develop, making them difficult to identify early. For these reasons, it is important to be familiar with the symptoms of stage 4 bedsores.

The most common signs and symptoms of stage 4 bedsores include:

  • Severe pain
  • Exposed bone or tendons
  • Dead tissue (eschar) around the sore
  • Draining pus or fluid from the sore
  • Foul odor coming from the sore
  • Fever or chills
  • Warm skin around the area

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Diagnosing a Stage 4 Bedsore

Stage 4 bedsores are deep wounds penetrating the skin and underlying tissue. They can also involve muscle and bone. The damage from stage 4 bedsores is so severe that it can take months or even years to heal. If you notice any signs or symptoms of a stage 4 bedsore, notify your loved one’s medical team immediately. It is important to obtain a proper diagnosis, so your loved one can receive the treatment and care they need.

Doctors can diagnose a stage 4 bedsore through a physical exam and medical imaging. X-rays and MRIs can get a clear picture of the extent of the damage. In some cases, a biopsy may also be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

The Prognosis for Bedsores Stage 4

The prognosis for patients with stage 4 pressure ulcers depends on several factors, including the location of the ulcer, the presence of underlying health conditions, and the patient’s response to treatment.

The overall health of the patient has a direct impact on the prognosis for stage 4 ulcers. Patients stand a good chance of healing if they are generally healthy and have no other major health problems. However, their prognosis may be poorer if they have other health issues that make it difficult to heal, such as diabetes, dementia, or circulation diseases.

Additionally, the location on the body also affects prognosis. Bedsores on the buttocks or lower back tend to have the best prognosis, while those on the feet, heels, or ankles tend to be more challenging to heal.

If a nursing home patient responds well to treatment, their prognosis is considerably better. Even with advanced treatment, however, it can take months or years for a stage 4 bedsore to heal appropriately. If a patient develops a secondary infection during this time, their prognosis is much lower.

Preventing Stage 4 Bedsores

Preventing Stage 4 Bedsores

There are a few different ways to prevent stage 4 bedsores, including:

  •  Keep the skin clean and dry. Caregivers and nursing home staff must keep patient clothing and bed linens clean and dry. Staff should assess and treat any red or broken skin to reduce the risk of infection and promote healing.
  • Avoid undue pressure. Nursing home staff should avoid putting too much pressure on any one area of the patient’s body. To do this, use pillows or cushions to support the body.
  • Provide proper nutrition. A healthy diet helps to promote healing and will also provide the nutrients necessary for new tissue growth.
  • Reposition bedridden patients regularly. Nursing home medical staff should reposition anyone bedridden or immobile to prevent bedsores. Turning patients every two hours can help avoid pressure sores.
  • Monitor patients carefully. Nursing home staff must carefully monitor patients and perform routine skin checks on bedridden patients.
  • Notify medical staff immediately. When a caregiver or nursing home staff notices a bedsore, they must immediately inform the patient’s doctor. The best prevention is early detection.

If stage 4 bedsores occur, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Proper treatment can often heal these ulcers successfully.

Stage 4 Bedsore Treatment Options

When left untreated, bedsores can quickly progress from stage 1 to stage 4. Treatment for stage 4 bedsores generally requires hospitalization and aggressive wound care.

The first step is cleaning the wound and removing dead tissue. Nursing home staff may do this through a process called debridement. Next, caregivers must dress the wound with a sterile bandage or dressing. Caregivers and nursing staff must change this dressing regularly to prevent infection and promote healing.

Antibiotics can help the patient fight off severe sepsis if an infection occurs.

Surgery to close the wound and repair damage to the underlying tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Stage 4 bedsores can heal with proper treatment, but the process can take weeks or even months. While recovery can be long and arduous, it is essential to remember that treatment can succeed only with proper care.

Complications From a Stage 4 Bedsore

Families are rightfully concerned about complications when a loved one develops a stage 4 bedsore. Those with stage 4 bedsores are at high risk for developing various life-threatening complications, including:

Amyloidosis is a disease that happens when an abnormal protein, called amyloid, builds up in the body. An amyloid is an abnormal protein found in many body tissues, including the liver, spleen, and kidney. Amyloidosis can affect any organ or tissue in the body, causing them not to work correctly

Stage 4 bedsores can lead to severe bone and skin infections. Once an infection takes hold, it can be challenging to treat.

A bone infection is a severe medical condition that can occur when bacteria enter the bone. The infection can damage the bone and the surrounding tissue, and it can also spread to other parts of the body. Cellulitis is a common skin infection often caused by the same bacteria that cause bone infections.

Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. In severe cases, amputation may be necessary to prevent the infection from spreading. Bone infections and cellulitis are serious medical conditions that can have significant consequences.

Renal failure is a serious medical condition that can occur if the infection spreads to the kidneys and renal system. If left untreated, renal failure is fatal.

Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when an infection spreads throughout the body. When a stage 4 bedsore gets infected, that infection can quickly become life-threatening when it spreads throughout the body and to vital organs. Treatment for sepsis with a stage 4 bedsore typically includes aggressive hydration, antibiotics, and wound care. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary.

Renal failure, sepsis, and amyloidosis are the most common causes of death for patients with chronic stage 4 bedsores. If you suspect a bedsore caused your loved one’s death, you should immediately speak to an experienced Arkansas nursing home abuse attorney to file a wrongful death claim.

What to Do Next

The discovery that a loved one has a stage 4 bedsore can be devastating. Not only is it a sign that they are not receiving the proper care, but it also puts them at risk for serious health complications. However, there are steps that family members can take to help ensure their loved one receives the treatment they need.

First and foremost, it is important to contact the individual’s healthcare provider. They will be able to provide direction on how to best care for the bedsore and prevent further damage. They may also recommend products or treatments to speed up the healing process. In addition, they can keep an eye on bedsores for complications and signs of infection.

Next, caregivers must ensure that the individual receives adequate nutrition and hydration. This will help their body to heal more quickly. If they cannot eat or drink independently, someone will need to provide this for them. Additionally, caregivers should ensure the individual gets turned frequently to prevent further pressure on the sore.

Finally, keeping the area clean and dry can prevent infection and speeds up healing. Caregivers should clean the area with mild soap and water and apply an antibiotic ointment if directed by a healthcare provider. Professional wound care may be necessary if the sore is particularly large or deep.

If you believe that your loved one’s stage 4 bedsore resulted from nursing home neglect and abuse, there are other steps you must take.

At Rainwater, Holt & Sexton, our Arkansas nursing home abuse lawyer can help you and your family through this difficult time. We will act quickly to prevent further abuse while taking legal action to help your loved one seek justice. Contact us immediately to begin exploring your legal options if you suspect abuse has occurred.

Can You Sue for a Stage 4 Bedsore?

When a loved one is in a nursing home, their health and well-being are in the hands of the facility and its staff. Unfortunately, not all nursing homes provide adequate care, and some residents suffer from neglect and abuse.

One sign of neglect is the development of bedsores, also known as pressure ulcers. These sores occur when a person is unable to move, and they are often incredibly painful. If a nursing home resident develops bedsores, it may indicate negligence on the facility’s part.

Families who believe their loved one has been neglected or abused in a nursing home have several legal options. They can file a complaint with the state licensing board or file a lawsuit against the facility.

Filing a Nursing Home Abuse Lawsuit

In most cases, you can file a civil lawsuit against the nursing home. To prove your case, you will need to show that the nursing home failed to provide adequate care, resulting in harm to your loved one. This can be difficult to do independently, as it may require gathering evidence from medical records and expert witnesses. As such, it is important to work with an experienced attorney who can help you gather the necessary evidence.

Filing a Complaint With the Arkansas Department of Human Services

Another option is to file a complaint with the Arkansas Department of Human Services. This state department investigates complaints of nursing home neglect and can take action against the facility if it finds evidence of wrongdoing. This option may not result in financial compensation for your loved one, but it can help to ensure that the nursing home is held accountable for its actions.

Regardless of your choice, it is important to speak with an experienced Arkansas nursing home abuse attorney who can help you navigate the legal process and protect your loved one’s rights

Compensation for Stage 4 Bedsores

Compensation for Stage 4 Bedsores

The potential for compensation in a nursing home neglect and abuse case will vary depending on the specifics of your case. In general, individuals who suffered harm from nursing home abuse and neglect can seek compensation for their losses. This includes:

  • Medical bills and rehabilitation costs
  • Long-term care
  • Pain and suffering
  • Emotional distress
  • Future medical care and costs
  • Punitive damages

Families who lost a loved one due to nursing home neglect or abuse can also recover damages for their losses in a wrongful death claim. This can include compensation for pain and suffering, funeral and burial expenses, and other economic damages. In some cases, courts will award punitive damages as well.

When considering a nursing home neglect or abuse case, it is important to consult with an experienced Arkansas nursing home abuse attorney at Rainwater, Holt & Sexton, who can evaluate the facts of your case and advise you of your legal options.

Common Stage 4 Bedsore Questions

Families of loved ones with Stage 4 bedsores have many questions. To get the answers, you need quickly, contact our law firm. Our Arkansas nursing home abuse lawyers will review the details of your case and answer your questions in a free consultation. We are here to help you through this difficult time.

Here are some answers to our client’s most frequently asked questions.

A stage 4 bedsore is a severe wound that can take weeks, months, or even years to heal. Stage 4 bedsores can take longer to heal in patients who are bedridden or have an underlying medical condition that impairs circulation. In addition, elderly patients in understaffed nursing homes may not receive the treatment they need to heal stage 4 bedsores adequately.

You could live a long life even if you received a diagnosis of a stage 4 bedsore. As long as the bedsore receives adequate treatment and you do not develop complications, your bedsore can heal.

Yes, most stage 4 bedsores can be prevented with adequate care, nutrition, and treatment. Catching a bedsore in its early stages is one of the best ways to avoid a stage 4 bedsore from occurring. Other ways to prevent a bedsore include keeping the skin dry, changing position frequently to relieve pressure on the skin, using cushions as support, and treating underlying medical conditions. Taking these precautions can help to reduce the likelihood of developing a stage 4 bedsore.

Yes, most stage 4 bedsores can be prevented with adequate care, nutrition, and treatment. Catching a bedsore in its early stages is one of the best ways to avoid a stage 4 bedsore from occurring. Other ways to prevent a bedsore include keeping the skin dry, changing position frequently to relieve pressure on the skin, using cushions as support, and treating underlying medical conditions. Taking these precautions can help to reduce the likelihood of developing a stage 4 bedsore.

Bedsores, also known as pressure ulcers, are a serious problem in nursing homes. According to one study from the CDC, more than 1 in 10 nursing home residents had a pressure ulcer. This number might be even higher since many nursing homes fail to report all pressure ulcer cases. Pressure ulcers are a serious problem in nursing homes, and they can have a devastating impact on the health and well-being of residents.

When most people think of nursing home abuse, they envision bruises, broken bones, or other signs of physical violence. However, abuse can take many forms, and neglect is one of the most common. Neglect can manifest in many ways, but one of the most serious is developing stage 4 bedsores.

However, it is important to know that not all stage 4 bedsores are a sign of neglect or abuse. Underlying medical conditions can increase the risk of developing a stage 4 bedsore, even with proper care. Talking to an experienced Arkansas nursing home abuse lawyer is the best way to determine if nursing home abuse or neglect caused your loved one’s bedsore.

Bedsores, also known as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are a type of wound that develops when the skin and underlying tissue get compressed for an extended time. This can happen when a person is immobile, bedridden, or in a wheelchair. People with diabetes or poor circulation are at increased risk for developing bedsores.

In nursing homes, bedsores are often caused by staff members failing to reposition residents who cannot move independently. As a result, stage 4 bedsores can be a sign of neglect, and family members need to be aware of this potential issue.

When bedsores first develop, they can be treated with various methods, including wound care, special dressings, and skin grafts. However, it is tough to heal once the bedsore reaches stage 4. At this stage, the sore has gone deep into the muscle and bone, and necrosis (death of tissue) is often present.

While there is no guaranteed cure for stage 4 bedsores, aggressive treatment can sometimes improve the chances of healing. In addition, new treatments, such as electrical stimulation and negative pressure therapy, are promising in helping to heal these types of wounds.

If you have suffered from a stage 4 bedsore, you may wonder how much you can get from a lawsuit. While the amount will vary depending on the severity of your injuries, you may be able to recover damages for pain and suffering, lost wages, medical bills, and more.

To learn more about what you may be entitled to, it is best to speak with an Arkansas nursing home abuse attorney at Rainwater, Holt & Sexton.

Contact Us

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If you suspect your loved one has been the victim of nursing home neglect or abuse, it is important to contact an experienced nursing home abuse lawyer at Rainwater, Holt & Sexton immediately. Our nursing home neglect lawyers will investigate and build a strong case against the facility. In addition, we can help you navigate the complex legal system and fight for the compensation you deserve.

This is our home, and we want to ensure our neighbors and friends are supported. With eight offices in Arkansas and Tennessee – Little Rock, Little Rock-Corporate Hill, Springdale, Conway, Hot Springs, Bryant, Jacksonville, and Memphis—our personal injury lawyers are easily accessible when you need help.

Our experienced nursing home abuse attorneys are here to advocate for you.

We’re here to help.

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Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are devastating and can lead to long-term health problems and disability. In the blink of an eye, your whole world can get turned upside down when you suffer a brain injury. While some people will recover from their brain injury, others may face a lifetime of physical and mental impairment. If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury, it is essential to consult with an experienced Arkansas brain injury attorney. At Rainwater, Holt & Sexton, we can help you receive the compensation you deserve for your injuries. Our lawyers know how to fight insurance companies aggressively at every turn. We work with medical teams to identify how your specific brain injury will affect your life and future, and we use this to build a case for you and your loved ones. After all, we know that living life with a brain injury isn’t easy. It takes considerable resources to pay for medical bills, rehabilitation, and home care. That’s why we don’t back down when we negotiate with insurers on behalf of our clients. Our Arkansas brain injury lawyers will work to protect your future every step of the way.

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Types of Elder Abuse

The National Center on Elder Abuse recognizes seven different types of elder abuse. You can recognize when your loved one might suffer from abuse if you understand these differences. Many families are shocked and saddened to discover that their loved one is a victim of elder abuse. Elder abuse can take many forms, from physical violence to financial exploitation, and it can have a devastating effect on the victim. Families may feel angry, helpless, and overwhelmed when they learn of the abuse. It is important to remember that you are not alone and there are ways to get help. Elder abuse is a serious problem. By being aware of the signs of abuse and taking action to stop it, you can help keep your loved one safe. At Rainwater, Holt & Sexton, our Arkansas elder abuse lawyers fight tirelessly for victims of elder abuse and their families. We know how difficult elder abuse is to prove. That’s why we work quickly to gather the evidence needed to win your case.

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Stage 4 Bedsores in Nursing Homes

Stage 4 bedsores are the most severe bedsores, leading to life-threatening infections in nursing home patients. According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, over 60,000 deaths occur annually due to stage 4 bedsores. Unfortunately, these bedsores are often a sign of neglect and abuse in nursing homes. Elderly patients can develop these sores when caregivers do not reposition them often enough - a clear sign of neglect. Even worse, up to 40% of stage 4 bedsores never get reported to Medicare, even though the law requires it. If someone you love develops a stage 4 bedsore while in a nursing home or skilled care facility, you may have cause to file a claim. A nursing home abuse attorney will meet with you and help you and your family explore all your legal options. At Rainwater, Holt & Sexton, our Arkansas nursing home abuse lawyers are here to answer your questions and help your family seek justice.

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Nursing Home Abuse

Serving all of Arkansas with offices in Little Rock, Springdale, Hot Springs, Conway, Bryant, and Jacksonville. About two million seniors over the age of 65 have been victims of nursing home abuse or neglect in the United States. This abuse can come in many forms, and its effects can be devastating. Even worse, most cases of nursing home abuse are never reported. Only 1 in 14 incidents are ever discovered, meaning that nursing home abuse is more common across the country than we think.

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How to Choose the Best Personal Injury Lawyer in Arkansas

When you suffer an injury in an accident, it can seem like your whole world is crashing down around you. Life as you know it may never be the same, and you need someone on your side to help you navigate this new path. As you focus on your recovery and on rebuilding your life,... Read more »

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Will My Personal Injury Case Settle or Go To Trial?

Will My Personal Injury Case Settle or Go To Trial?

When you suffer an injury in an accident, you may need to file a personal injury claim or lawsuit to obtain the compensation you need. With the right personal injury lawyer on your team, you can typically get significantly more money for your accident and injuries. Your lawyer will work to negotiate the best possible... Read more »

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Filing limits wrongful death suit

Who Can Sue for Wrongful Death After an Auto Accident?

Who Can Sue for Wrongful Death After an Auto Accident in Arkansas? If you lost a loved one in an auto accident in Arkansas, you know that your life will never be the same. In the blink of an eye, everything you planned and all your future dreams may have been lost. The pain of losing a loved one is unbearable and survivors are often uncertain how they will ever put their lives back together. During this difficult time, it is important to know that you are not alone. A compassionate Arkansas attorney can help you through the aftermath of a tragic auto accident. In many cases, surviving family members can file a wrongful death lawsuit to help recover financial losses. While no amount of compensation could ever replace the loss of your loved one, you and your family should not have to shoulder unnecessary financial burdens because of another person’s negligence. When a person or entity causes the death of another, surviving family members can bring legal action in civil court against the negligent party. This is known as filing a wrongful death suit. In Arkansas, however, only certain family members are allowed to file a wrongful death lawsuit to seek a civil remedy. Wrongful death in an auto accident can happen if, for example, a driver fails to stop at a red light and collides with another car or a driver drives the wrong way on a one-way street harming others. In these instances, the driver is not abiding by traffic laws, failing to use reasonable care while operating their vehicle. Under state law, the personal representative of the deceased’s estate must be the one to file the wrongful death claim in court. But what do you do if a representative was never appointed? If there is no personal representative, then surviving family members may be able to file a wrongful death lawsuit, including: Surviving spouse Children Parents Siblings Dependent minors Life partners Be prepared to prove your relationship to the deceased with a wedding license, birth certificate or copy of the will, depending on your relationship. Let Us Reivew Your Case

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What are Future Damages in a Personal Injury Case?

If you suffered an injury because of someone else’s negligence, you should not have to face any expenses as a consequence of that injury. Justice means that the person or people responsible for your injury should be the same ones responsible for paying for it. After a serious accident, you deserve justice and an experienced... Read more »

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Impact of Medication Errors in Nursing Homes

The Impact of Medication Errors in Nursing Homes Between 2013-2017, Arkansas’s nursing home population reached nearly 3 million residents in total. During that time, there were 216 “significant” medication errors in nursing homes throughout Arkansas. These medication errors caused tremendous harm, pain, and suffering. In some cases, they even resulted in death. That is because elderly patients are vulnerable and at high risk for suffering severe injuries when given an improper dose of medication or the wrong medication. Sadly, Arkansas elderly residents are at a higher risk for suffering a medication error in nursing homes than other nearby states. Texas, for example, reported only 128 more serious medication errors in nursing homes during the same time period. This means that Arkansas has 19 times more reported “significant” medication errors, per capita, than does Texas. In fact, the average percentage of facilities cited annually in Arkansas is significantly higher than all the other states in the region, with 20.4 percent of facilities in Arkansas being cited for medication errors compared to 5.5 percent in Texas, 2.8 percent in Louisiana, and 5.4 percent in Oklahoma. When understaffed, overworked, or negligent caregivers make medication errors in nursing homes, they can cause grave harm to their patients. If your loved one suffered an injury because of a medication error, you have a right to justice. Nursing homes can – and should – be held accountable for the mistakes they make. An experienced Arkansas nursing home lawyer can help hold them accountable and get your loved ones the compensation they deserve. Contact Us for Free Case Evaluation

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Signs of Nursing Home Abuse AR

Signs of Abuse

Signs of Nursing Home Abuse If you have an elderly or disabled loved one in a skilled nursing facility, the thought of that person falling victim to nursing home abuse is horrifying. Unfortunately, this kind of abuse does occur. The Arkansas nursing home abuse lawyers at Rainwater, Holt & Sexton Injury Lawyers are familiar with the laws... Read more »

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Residents Rights

 Arkansas Nursing Home Abuse Injury Lawyers Residents’ Rights Right to Dignity, Respect, and Freedom As the resident of a nursing home, one has the right to be treated with consideration, respect, dignity, and to be free from abuse and neglect. Right to Be Fully Informed Residents should be fully informed of service charges, facility rules, and regulations,... Read more »

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